Technology and Chemistry Selection

Fractal models total project costs, performance and degradation to determine the optimum technology, chemistry and sizing for your project.

Vendor and Technology Agnostic

Fractal is vendor and technology agnostic. We design systems with the highest reliability, lowest total cost of ownership, and maximum revenue for the life of your project. Fractal has worked with all of the following electrical energy storage technologies:

  • Lithium-ion Batteries (NMC / LTO / LFP, ...)
  • Lead Acid Batteries
  • Advanced Lead-Acid Batteries
  • Nickel Cadmium Batteries
  • Sodium Nickel Chloride Batteries
  • Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
  • Zinc Bromide Flow Batteries
  • Zinc Iron Redox Flow Batteries
  • Polysulphide Bromine Flow Batteries
  • Copper Zinc Batteries
  • Metal-Air Batteries (Zn / Li)
  • Natural Gas Fuel Cells
  • Compressed Air (CAES)
  • Pumped Hydroelectric
  • Flywheels

Battery Chemistry Analysis

Fractal is an expert at battery selection for energy storage projects. Through hands-on experience and cutting-edge sub-chemistry optimization modeling, Fractal can drastically increase the economics of your energy storage project.

There are many sub-chemistries of batteries available in the marketplace. Each variation has its own set of parameters (charge rate, DoD, RTE, calendar life, etc.) that Fractal will rigorously evaluate to determine the best fit for each Business Model.

  • Build seasonal dispatch model based on maximum revenue and/or cost avoidance potential
  • Identify power, energy requirements / inverter sizing
  • Identify charge and discharge round-trip efficiency due to C Rate and temperature
  • Degradation (cycle and calendar life) due to dispatch and SOC
  • Quantify and assess costs (Capital & O&M)
  • Determine the most reliable and cost-effective solution

Parameter Evaluation

Fractal considers and evaluates many critical factors to determine the best-fit technology and chemistry.

  • Energy Capacity
  • Power Capacity
  • Depth-of-Discharge (DOD)
  • Charge / Discharge Rate
  • Charge / Discharge Efficiencies
  • Cycle Life
  • Calendar Life
  • O&M Costs
  • Foot Print
  • Round-trip Efficiency Losses
  • Aux. Load / Pump / HVAC Losses
  • Component Replacements
  • Installation Cost
  • Environmental Impact
  • Self-Discharge Rate
  • Response Time
  • Voltage Range
  • Maturity and Financial Stability

Increased Profitability Through Optimization

Selecting the right chemistry can increase your energy storage project's profitability by up to 80%.

Use Case Initial B/C Optimized B/C % Change
Fast Regulation 1.95 2.24 +15
Peak Shaving 1.10 1.74 +58
Peak Shaving + DART 1.10 2.08 +89
Ancillary Services 0.80 0.99 +24
Virtual Power Plant 1.18 1.61 +36
Distributed Storage 0.68 1.07 +60
Microgrid 1.23 1.97 +60